Histoire du Calendrier Chinois

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Histoire du Calendrier Chinois

Message  Rubis le Sam 9 Nov - 12:58

Bonjour,

Voici une bonne page Wikipedia, modifiée le 8 novembre 2013, concernant l'historique du /des Calendriers Chinois...

En Anglais, utilisez un traducteur !

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_calendar


Early Chinese calendars

It is found on the oracle bones of the Shang Dynasty (late 2nd millennium BC), which seem to describe a lunisolar year of 12 months, with a possible intercalary 13th, or even 14th, added empirically to prevent calendar drift. The Sexagenary cycle for recording days was already in use. Tradition holds that, in that era, the year began on the first new moon after the winter solstice.

Early Eastern Zhou texts, such as the Spring and Autumn Annals, provide better understanding of the calendars used in the Zhou dynasty. One year usually had 12 months, which were alternately 29 and 30 days long (with an additional day added from time to time, to catch up with "drifts" between the calendar and the actual moon cycle), and intercalary months were added in an arbitrary fashion at the end of the year.

These arbitrary rules on day and month intercalation caused the calendars of each state to be slightly different, at times. Thus, texts like the Annals will often state whether the calendar they use (the calendar of Lu) is in phase with the Royal calendar (used by the Zhou kings).

Although tradition holds that in the Zhou, the year began on the new moon which preceded the winter solstice, the Spring and Autumn Annals seem to indicate that (in Lu at least) the Yin calendar (the calendar used in Shang dynasty, with years beginning on the first new moon after the winter solstice) was in use until the middle of the 7th century, and that the beginning of the year was shifted back one month around 650 BC.

By the beginning of the Warring States, progress in astronomy and mathematics allowed the creation of calculated calendars (where intercalary months and days are set by a rule, and not arbitrarily). The sìfēn 四分 (quarter remainder) calendar, which began about 484 BC, was the first calculated Chinese calendar, so named because it used a solar year of 365¼ days (the same as the 1st-century BC Julian Calendar of Rome), along with a 19-year (235-month) Rule Cycle zhang 章, known in the West as the Metonic cycle.[1] The year began on the new moon preceding the winter solstice, and intercalary months were inserted at the end of the year.

In 256 BC, as the last Zhou king ceded his territory to Qin, a new calendar (the Qin calendar) began to be used. It followed the same principles as the Sifen calendar, except that the year began at Shíyuèshuò(十月朔,the closest new moon of the winter beginning). The Qin calendar was used during the Qin dynasty, and in the beginning of the Western Han dynasty. According to the Han Shu 21a, 973, for the moment of unification the Middle kingdoms had 6 different calendars: those of the mythological progenitors Yellow Emperor (黄帝曆) and Zhuanxu (顓頊曆); of the dynasties Xia (夏曆), Yin (殷曆), and Zhou (周曆), and of the Zhou Dynasty state of Lu (鲁曆). Of those, the second was taken to substitute the rest. The Han imperial library is said to contain 82 volumes of descriptions of all those systems (Han Shu 30, 1765-6), now mostly lost.[2]

The two oldest printed Chinese calendars are dated 877 and 882; they were found at the Buddhist pilgrimage site of Dunhuang; Patricia Ebrey writes that it is no surprise that some of the earliest printed items were calendars, since the Chinese found it necessary to calculate and mark which days were auspicious and which were not.[3][4]


Ancient Chinese calendar

Emperor Wu of the Western Han dynasty introduced reforms that have governed the Chinese calendar ever since. His Tàichū (太初, "Grand Inception") calendar of 104 BC had a year with the winter solstice in the 11th month and was the first to use the system of 24 solar terms to determine intercalary months, in which calendar months (a month of 29 or 30 whole days) during which the sun does not pass a principal term (that is, remained within the same sign of the zodiac throughout) are designated as intercalary. The solar year of the Taichu calendar was defined as 365 \tfrac{385}{1539} days and the lunar month as 29 \tfrac{43}{81} days. Because the sun's mean motion was used to calculate the solar terms until 1645, this intercalary month was equally likely to occur after any month of the year. The conjunction of the sun and moon (the astronomical new moon) was calculated using the mean motions of both the sun and moon.

Nineteen year cycle

It was realized in the early age of the Chinese Calendar, that 19 solar years have 235 months. So, as 235=12*19+7, there are 7 intercalary months in 19 years.

When the 1 tropical year was calculated as 365\tfrac{1}{4} days, 1 synodic month was accordingly 29\tfrac{499}{940} days.

Also, 76 years =365*76+76/4= 27759 days, and likewise 940 months = 29*940+499=27759 days. In other words, 76 years = 940 months, meaning that 76 years is a cycle, or the sun and moon both together return to their original positions after 76 years.

The 19-year-cycle was used in the "Six Early Calendars"(古六历,Gǔlìulì). And a 600 year cycle with 221 intercalary months is used in the Yuánshǐ Calendar in the Liang(N) dynasty(401-439, established in Liangzhou). And then a 391 year cycle with 144 intercalary months was used in the Dàmíng Calendar from the Ninth year of Tianjian(天监九年, 510) in the Liang Dynasty(502-557, established in Jiankang). After the Délíng Calendar of the Tang Dynasty(618-907, established in Chang'an), the calendar was made with the true new moon, the cycle could no longer be used to determine the intercalary months.

However the Gregorian date may be estimated with a 19-year cycle. The error is a day, or about a month.


Modern Chinese calendar :

True sun and moon
Though the fact of the irregularity of the lunar orbit was known in the 1st century BC, the starts of the months were calculated using the mean motions of both the sun and moon until 619, the second year of the Tang dynasty, when chronologists began to use true motions modeled using two offset opposing parabolas (with small linear and cubic components). Unfortunately, the parabolas did not meet smoothly at the mean motion, but met with a discontinuity or jump.

With the introduction of European astronomy into China via the Jesuits, the motions of both the sun and moon began to be calculated with sinusoids in the 1645 Chongzhen calendar (時憲書, Book of the Conformity of Time) of the Qing dynasty, made by the Jesuits Adam Schall and Giacomo Rho. The true motion of the sun was now used to calculate the jiéqì, which caused the intercalary month to often occur after the second through the ninth months, but rarely after the tenth through first months. A few autumn-winter periods have two or three calendar months in which the sun stays within one sign during the month (i.e. months that would normally be treated as intercalary months), interspersed with one or two calendar months in which the sun enters two signs of the zodiac during the month, something that was impossible using mean sun motion.


Standard time

Before 1929, the traditional calendar was calculated by the Central Observatory (formerly the Imperial Observatory) in Beijing using Beijing local time at a longitude of 116°25'E (UTC+7:45:40). From 1929 to 1949 it was calculated by the Institute of Astronomy in Nanjing and since 1949 by the Purple Mountain Observatory outside of Nanjing using Chinese standard time at a longitude of 120°E (UTC+Cool. This shifted the midnight marking the beginning of each day in both the traditional and Gregorian calendars by plus 14 minutes 20 seconds. This shift meant that any dark moon which formerly occurred just before midnight Beijing local time now occurred just after midnight Chinese standard time, causing the first day of a lunar month to occur one day later. However, unlike the official tables, most public calendars relied on the old Wannian Shu (Long-term (lit. "10,000-year") Calendar; simplified Chinese: 万年书; traditional Chinese: 萬年書) last published in 1910 using Beijing time until they were forced to adopt the official traditional calendar using Chinese standard time when the two disagreed. In 1953 public calendars placed the dark moon and the first day of a lunar month on August 9, whereas the official traditional calendar placed it on August 10, which caused public calendars in most of the People's Republic of China to use the official tables and standard time after 1953. In 1978 the dates were respectively September 2 and 3, causing public calendars in the Hong Kong and Canton areas to do the same after 1978. In 1989 the dates were August 1 and 2, which caused Taiwan to do the same after 1989.[5][6]

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Prenez le temps de lire l'article intégral ! Merci

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Un blog Zwds en recherches...
http://asabovesobelow108.wordpress.com/

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Re: Histoire du Calendrier Chinois

Message  Rubis le Sam 16 Nov - 10:57

Bonjour,

Information complémentaire :

This page was last modified on 14 November 2013 at 09:32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_calendar

Lunar phase and lunar month (Yuè, 月)

"Lunar phase refers to the shape of the illuminated (sunlit) portion of the Moon as seen by an observer on Earth. The lunar phases corresponds to the celestial longitude difference of the moon and sun. The celestial longitude difference is cyclic variation from 0° to 360°. The principal lunar phases are new moon (0° celestial longitude difference), first quarter moon (90° celestial longitude difference), full moon (180° celestial longitude difference) and last quarter moon (270° celestial longitude difference).

In Chinese calendar, A lunar month is corresponds to a variation cycle(0°-360°) of the celestial longitude difference. So, the month in the Chinese calendar starts on the day of a new moon (i.e. the astronomical new moon, not the crescent new moon) and ends the day before the next one
."

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Gregorian-Lunar Calendar Conversion Table (1901 to 2100) / Hong Kong Observatory
http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/conversion.htm

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A lire :

Astronomie Chinoise
http://astropalais.forumculture.net/t1194-metaphysique-chinoise-et-astronomie#5649

Heure Solaire : Sundial/Solar Hour
http://astropalais.forumculture.net/t1213-outils-en-ligne#5716

Traduction des idéogrammes
http://astropalais.forumculture.net/t980-traduction-chinois#4854

...

Bonne journée


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